Envolution around 2,000 BC



Southwest Asia



Brace and his colleagues measured hundreds of ancient Egyptian bodies and estimated the genetic affinities of the ancient Egyptians to other groups, and they concluded that the characteristic suite of physical features of ancient Egyptians has been relatively the same since the Pleistocene, and that ancient Egyptians were most closely related genetically to circum-Mediterranean peoples and Europeans, less so to sub-Saharan Africans. The ancient Egyptians, course, considered themselves different from all other peoples and superior to them. Egyptian men were painted a darker color than women to underscore gender differences, misleading some to conclude that most ancient Egyptians were very dark in skin tone; but there is no evidence that they were much different in this regard from modern Egyptians, with the wide range from the very light Mediterranean types to sub-Saharan tones. (Patterns in Prehistory)

Indus Valley



The Takla Makan Desert had preserved not only the fine parchment and palm leaves with their Tocharian writings but also corpses of the former inhabitants of the region in which the language was spoken. These people are far more ancient than the manuscripts. A naturally mummified woman, her desiccated flesh in an incredible state of preservation, was exhumed from the desert floor of the Tarim Basin by a crew of Chinese archaeologists in 1985. The mummy was dressed in a colorful blouse, skirt, leggings, boots, hat, and jewelry. She is estimated to have been fifty-eight years old and to I have lived at least a thousand years before Christ. What most surprised her discoverers was her almost six-foot height, her long, narrow nose, her thin lips, her deep-set eyes, her blond hair, and her pointed skull, all unmistakable features of a European pedigree. Some graves contained woven plaid textiles. The diagonal twill weave requires a type of loom never before linked with central Asia. A specialist in textile archaeology at the University of Pennsylvania remarked that the wool design was "virtually identical stylistically and technically" to plaids found in Germany and Austria from roughly the same time. (Noah's Flood)



South America




North America

C. Turner looked at many different features of teeth, including shoveling, and variations in the number of roots of premolars and molars. By comparing large samples of teeth on many different measurements, Turner concluded that: (1) New World groups are more like Asians than like Europeans; (2) all New World groups resemble each other more than they do most Old World populations; (3) dental variation is greater in North America than in South America; (4) there are three "clusters" of New World peoples. It is very difficult, however, to estimate rates of change in these kinds of physical features, and thereby to estimate how long ago the migrations to the Americas began, but Turner's calculations estimate a date of about 12,000 years ago for the initial colonization of the New World, with two much later waves of colonizations. (Patterns in Prehistory)


The Canary Islands have the same prehistoric components as does North Africa: the Cro-Magnon type and the Proto-Mediterranean. The first and more primitive human type arrived on the islands, according to some authors, between 2500 BC and 1000 AD. However, because of the numerical proportion of Cro-Magnon type (Tenerife, 34 percent; Great Canary, 33 percent; and Gomera, 45 percent), an early arrival to the Canary Islands from the continent is more likely when Cro-Magnon types dominated North Africa prior to 10,500 years ago. (Before the Pharaohs)