HUMANPAST.NET

Evolution                  20,000 BC
Africa
Southwest Asia
Egypt
Indus Valley
China
Europe
South America
Mesoamerica
North America
Other

Africa

 Based

Southwest Asia

 ...the hill lands of Syria, Lebanon, and Israel, are replete with caves where the evidence of prehistoric but modern Man has been preserved. One of these caves, Shanidar, is located in the north-eastern part of the semiarc of civilization. As layer upon layer of debris was removed, it became apparent that the cave preserved a clear record of Man's habitation in the area from about 100,000 to some 13,000 years ago. Man's culture has shown not a progression but a regression. Starting from a certain standard, the following generations showed not more advanced but less advanced standards of civilized life. And from about 27,000 BC to 11,000 BC, the regressing and dwindling population reached the point of an almost complete absence of habitation. (146)

Egypt

 

Indus Valley

 

China

 

Europe

 People had moved into subarctic Siberia when it was warmer, between about 30,000 and 20,000 years ago, with most of the known sites dating from 24,000 to 20,000 B.P., just before the last glacial maximum (or LGM). There they developed the techniques to make a living in cold desert-steppe landscape. After that period, traces of people are not found; they all appear to have moved south again when the far north became uninhabitable. (130)

More than 80% of European men have inherited their Y chromosomes from Palaeolithic ancestors who lived in Europe 25 to 40 kya. Only 20% of Europeans trace their Y-chromosome ancestry to Neolithic farmers who moved in from the Middle East. They linked two early migrations recorded by the Y chromosome to the Aurignacian and Gravettian cultures. (145)

South America 

…geneticists, by tracing the DNA patterns found in people throughout the world, have now identified lineages descended from 10 sons of a genetic Adam and 18 daughters of Eve. Of the A through D lineages found in American Indians, A, C and D also occur in Siberian peoples, suggesting that their ancestors were the principal source of the Amerind-speakers' migration. But the B lineage, though it is found elsewhere in Asia, has not turned up in Siberia, a hint that the B people may have taken a sea route to the Americas and then merged there with their A- , C- and D-carrying cousins. (109)

Stone implements dating to 25,000 BC have been identified by Canadian researchers in the Old Crow Basin in the Yukon Territory of Alaska. In South America (as far south as Peru and Tierra del Fuego) human remains and artefacts have been found which have been reliably dated to 12,000 BC - with another group between 19,000 BC and 23,000 BC. With this and other evidence taken into account, 'a very reasonable conclusion on the peopling of the Americas is that it began at least 35,000 years ago, but may well have included waves of immigrants at later dates too.' (152)

As of now, the people of central Siberia seem to represent our best guess for the source of the native people of the New World. A European team of geneticists has looked at the mtDNA data and has suggested that the amount of genetic variation in Native Americans, when compared to that of native northeast Asians, suggests a separation of 20,000 to 25,000. (170)

Mesoamerica

…geneticists, by tracing the DNA patterns found in people throughout the world, have now identified lineages descended from 10 sons of a genetic Adam and 18 daughters of Eve. Of the A through D lineages found in American Indians, A, C and D also occur in Siberian peoples, suggesting that their ancestors were the principal source of the Amerind-speakers' migration. But the B lineage, though it is found elsewhere in Asia, has not turned up in Siberia, a hint that the B people may have taken a sea route to the Americas and then merged there with their A- , C- and D-carrying cousins. (109)

The date of the first entry of humans into the area that would become Mesoamerica is unknown, but chronometric ages of greater than 20,000 years have been reported for materials associated with artifacts at Tlapacoya, Mexico, and Cualapan Puebla. (159)

As of now, the people of central Siberia seem to represent our best guess for the source of the native people of the New World. A European team of geneticists has looked at the mtDNA data and has suggested that the amount of genetic variation in Native Americans, when compared to that of native northeast Asians, suggests a separation of 20,000 to 25,000. (170)

North America 

…geneticists, by tracing the DNA patterns found in people throughout the world, have now identified lineages descended from 10 sons of a genetic Adam and 18 daughters of Eve. Of the A through D lineages found in American Indians, A, C and D also occur in Siberian peoples, suggesting that their ancestors were the principal source of the Amerind-speakers' migration. But the B lineage, though it is found elsewhere in Asia, has not turned up in Siberia, a hint that the B people may have taken a sea route to the Americas and then merged there with their A- , C- and D-carrying cousins. (109)

In 1998, Dr. Wallace and his colleagues discovered the X pattern, a rare European lineage, among the northern Native Americans such as the Ojibwa and Sioux. At first they assumed it came from intermarriage with modern Europeans. But the American X lineage turned out to be pre-Columbian and its owners would have arrived in America either 15,000 or 30,000 years ago, depending on certain genetic assumptions. The European X lineage seems to have originated in Western Asia around 40,000 years ago. Dr. Wallace suggests a part of this group may have made their way to America via Siberia, even though no traces of the X-lineage have yet turned up in eastern Asia. A trans-Atlantic route is a possible alternative. (109)

...mtDNA profiling by Douglas Wallace's group of Native Americans living in the Great Lakes region shows the existence of a fifth genetic lineage. This form (X) only exists amongst Europeans and is not present in East Asians. The data suggest that this haplogroup arrived in the Americas either 12 to 17 kya or 23 to 36 kya. (145)

Pigmies, Australoids and Mongols from north-east Siberia, of whom the principal stock was Mongol, had begun to settle in America sometime about 25000 BC, moving south along its coast and across the plains. That occupation was still continuing, doubtless with some people returning in the fifth and fourth millennium BC when earth-worshipping sailors from the Mediterranean and then sea-peoples from India, trading and prospecting the Pacific and the Pacific coast of China for metals, were either blown unwillingly from north of Japan to America or they heard of the movement to those sea-girt continents and, following it, themselves also discovered America. The genius of America remained however, the genius of its already mixed American-Indian populations. (135)

As of now, the people of central Siberia seem to represent our best guess for the source of the native people of the New World. A European team of geneticists has looked at the mtDNA data and has suggested that the amount of genetic variation in Native Americans, when compared to that of native northeast Asians, suggests a separation of 20,000 to 25,000. (170)

Other

 Between 60,000 and 30,000 years ago, the ancestors of the Australian Aborigines somehow managed to cross at least a few kilometers of open ocean to reach Australia. And while it is possible that an occasional boat of fisherfolk was shipwrecked on the New Guinea-Australia coast, computer simulations that take into account normal fertility rates and the genetic diversity of modern populations suggest that more than just a boatload or two of colonists founded that area's present aboriginal population. Two distinct groups of ancient people have been found there, which scholars believe indicate colonization by two different groups, one more robust type, 50,000 years ago, the other a more gracile people, before 20,000 years ago.(24)