Envolution around 2,000 BC



Southwest Asia



Brace and his colleagues measured hundreds of ancient Egyptian bodies and estimated the genetic affinities of the ancient Egyptians to other groups, and they concluded that the characteristic suite of physical features of ancient Egyptians has been relatively the same since the Pleistocene, and that ancient Egyptians were most closely related genetically to circum-Mediterranean peoples and Europeans, less so to sub-Saharan Africans. The ancient Egyptians, course, considered themselves different from all other peoples and superior to them. Egyptian men were painted a darker color than women to underscore gender differences, misleading some to conclude that most ancient Egyptians were very dark in skin tone; but there is no evidence that they were much different in this regard from modern Egyptians, with the wide range from the very light Mediterranean types to sub-Saharan tones. (Patterns in Prehistory)

Indus Valley






South America




North America

C. Turner looked at many different features of teeth, including shoveling, and variations in the number of roots of premolars and molars. By comparing large samples of teeth on many different measurements, Turner concluded that: (1) New World groups are more like Asians than like Europeans; (2) all New World groups resemble each other more than they do most Old World populations; (3) dental variation is greater in North America than in South America; (4) there are three "clusters" of New World peoples. It is very difficult, however, to estimate rates of change in these kinds of physical features, and thereby to estimate how long ago the migrations to the Americas began, but Turner's calculations estimate a date of about 12,000 years ago for the initial colonization of the New World, with two much later waves of colonizations. (Patterns in Prehistory)