HUMANPAST.NET

Evolution                  13,000 BC
Africa
Southwest Asia
Egypt
Indus Valley
China
Europe
South America
Mesoamerica
North America
Other

Africa

 In North Africa, modern man (Homo sapiens sapiens) appeared as Iberomaurusians (an African Cro-Magnon variation) between 19,000 and 10,000 years ago. (70)

Southwest Asia

 ...the hill lands of Syria, Lebanon, and Israel, are replete with caves where the evidence of prehistoric but modern Man has been preserved. One of these caves, Shanidar, is located in the north-eastern part of the semiarc of civilization. As layer upon layer of debris was removed, it became apparent that the cave preserved a clear record of Man's habitation in the area from about 100,000 to some 13,000 years ago. Man's culture has shown not a progression but a regression. Starting from a certain standard, the following generations showed not more advanced but less advanced standards of civilized life. And from about 27,000 BC to 11,000 BC, the regressing and dwindling population reached the point of an almost complete absence of habitation. (146)

Egypt

 

Indus Valley

 

China

 

Europe

 Brian Fagan, expresses a cautious view in his latest college-level textbook on world prehistory. He assumes that most human activity on the continent dates from sometime after 20,000 years ago and that practically no one lived in Siberia before 18,000 years ago, neither of which are unreasonable suggestions based on a conservative interpretation of available data. Similarly, few people lived in frigid Beringia during the glacial maximum, but then, about 12,700 BC or 14,650 years ago, the temperatures in the far north rose rapidly and people began heading across the land bridge and south. Once under way, they ranged far and wide. (130)

South America

 

Mesoamerica

 

North America

One might think that good, solid archaeological data--bones and stones--would be a firmer basis for analyzing New World colonization, given the ambiguities in estimating rates of change in teeth, languages, etc. The truth, however, is that the archaeological record does not resolve these questions and disputes about the date, routes, and adaptations of the first Americans. At this time there is no conclusive evidence that people were in the New World and south of Alaska before about 13,000 BC. That they were there at that time or shortly thereafter is certain (insofar as science can ever be certain), since scores of sites have been dated by many different methods to between 13,000 and 10,000 BC.(26)

More controversially, there is a growing body of evidence which suggests that the Jomon may not have confined themselves to exploring their own region. According to the findings of an international team of researchers led by C. Loring Brace of the University of Michigan's Museum of Anthropology, migrants entering North America across the Bering land-bridge at the end of the Ice Age were 'people closely resembling the prehistoric Jomon of Japan'. Published in the 31 July 2001 edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the findings provide: strong evidence supporting earlier work suggesting that ancient Americans...were descended from the Jomon, who walked from Japan to the Asian mainland and eventually to the Western hemisphere on land-bridges as the Earth began to warm up about 15,000 years ago at the end of the last Ice Age. (124)

Brian Fagan, expresses a cautious view in his latest college-level textbook on world prehistory. He assumes that most human activity on the continent dates from sometime after 20,000 years ago and that practically no one lived in Siberia before 18,000 years ago, neither of which are unreasonable suggestions based on a conservative interpretation of available data. Similarly, few people lived in frigid Beringia during the glacial maximum, but then, about 12,700 BC or 14,650 years ago, the temperatures in the far north rose rapidly and people began heading across the land bridge and south. Once under way, they ranged far and wide. (130)

...mtDNA profiling by Douglas Wallace's group of Native Americans living in the Great Lakes region shows the existence of a fifth genetic lineage. This form (X) only exists amongst Europeans and is not present in East Asians. The data suggest that this haplogroup arrived in the Americas either 12 to 17 kya or 23 to 36 kya. (145)

Other