HUMANPAST.NET

Evolution                  10,000 BC
Africa
Southwest Asia
Egypt
Indus Valley
China
Europe
South America
Mesoamerica
North America
Other

the Globe

 The earliest known dog in the archaeological record dates back 14,000 years. But the remains that date to that point in time are few and far between. More dogs have been found buried with humans who died about 12,000 years ago, which indicates that by the end the Ice Age the human-dog relationship was beginning to be established. It was not until 7000 BC to 6000 BC, however, that this relationship was clearly established in the archaeological record. The bones of dogs become common in campsites of the late Neolithic period. (69)

By the beginning of the Holocene the body mass of males living at higher latitudes was not significantly different from that of males living at these latitudes today. The same is also true of high-latitude females. At lower latitudes, however, males and females were still significantly larger (11-12%) than those now living at these latitudes. One other interesting feature of these changes is that at the same time there appears to have been a parallel reduction in brain size. (145)

Africa

 In North Africa, modern man (Homo sapiens sapiens) appeared as Iberomaurusians (an African Cro-Magnon variation) between 19,000 and 10,000 years ago. (70) 

What Irish found is that Cro-Magnon types, Iberomaurusians of twelve thousand years ago, are related to North Africans who lived later in history, during Egypt's dynastic times. However, despite purported similarities in culture and robust cranial characteristics, Iberomaurusians are wholly unlike Nubians from twelve thousand years ago or more. The Iberomaurusian samples show resemblance to all later North Africans, as suggested by the features found in the North African dental trait complex. Extreme divergence between ice age Iberomaurusians and Nubians suggests they are not closely related. Nubians exhibit a mass-additive dental pattern, like that found in sub-Saharan peoples. The latter possess a suite of eleven traits that Irish calls the "sub-Saharan African dental complex." The dental evidence supports the theory that the older of the two general types of people were the North African Cro-Magnon, which existed throughout North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula. However, for some unknown reason, they appear to almost vanish in North Africa, allowing Mediterranean types to become more prominent. (70)

It appears that the first incursions of nomads into the southern Sahara, which came from the south, did not take place until around 12 kya. At around the same time migrants may also have entered the northern Sahara from the Mediterranean coast. There is evidence of their presence by 11.5 kya in the Acacus Mountains of Libyan Sahara. What is even more interesting is that between 9 and 8 kya these people had developed a hunting strategy that involved the capture, penning and feeding of Barbary sheep to manage their food supplies more efficiently. (145)

Southwest Asia

 Paleopathologists studying ancient skeletons from Greece and Turkey found a striking parallel. The average height of hunter-gatherers in that region toward the end of the Ice Age was a generous five feet ten inches for men, five feet six inches for women. With the adoption of agriculture, height crashed, reaching by 4000 BC a low value of only five feet three for men, five feet one for women. By classical times, heights were very slowly on the rise again, but modern Greeks and Turks have still not regained the heights of their healthy hunter-gatherer ancestors. (114)

According to one physical anthropologist, all of the burials at Ain Mallaha were of the Robust or Eurafrican type of Proto-Mediterranean; all those at Nahal Oren were Gracile Proto-Mediterranean. She believes that these two sub-races, which still dominate the Mediterranean populations of today, diverged from a common ancestor many thousands of years before meeting again in tenth millennium Palestine. (115)

Egypt

 Through skeletal and dental comparisons, it is clear that the Cro-Magnon types were the dominant human group in North Africa and the Mediterranean prior to 10,000 BC. Studies from both Egypt and Malta bear this out, and attest to the probability that Mediterranean type slowly mixed with the indigenous population. The Cro-Magnon types began to diminish around 5000 BC. Eventually, the Mediterranean types became the dominant human type in the area. Since, as scholars such as Emery have noted, Cro-Magnon types were some of the earliest pharaohs, it is logical to conclude that they were members of the host culture that occupied the land in Egypt. (70)

Indus Valley

 Type B [blood] is believed to have developed between 10,000 and 15,000 years ago in the Himalayan highlands (currently Pakistan and India). Its highest numbers are in India, Japan, China, and Mongolia, and in Russia up to the Ural Mountains. (113)

China

 

Europe

 Through skeletal and dental comparisons, it is clear that the Cro-Magnon types were the dominant human group in North Africa and the Mediterranean prior to 10,000 BC. Studies from both Egypt and Malta bear this out, and attest to the probability that Mediterranean type slowly mixed with the indigenous population. The Cro-Magnon types began to diminish around 5000 BC. Eventually, the Mediterranean types became the dominant human type in the area. Since, as scholars such as Emery have noted, Cro-Magnon types were some of the earliest pharaohs, it is logical to conclude that they were members of the host culture that occupied the land in Egypt. (70)

Paleopathologists studying ancient skeletons from Greece and Turkey found a striking parallel. The average height of hunter-gatherers in that region toward the end of the Ice Age was a generous five feet ten inches for men, five feet six inches for women. With the adoption of agriculture, height crashed, reaching by 4000 BC a low value of only five feet three for men, five feet one for women. By classical times, heights were very slowly on the rise again, but modern Greeks and Turks have still not regained the heights of their healthy hunter-gatherer ancestors. (114)

South America

 

Another skeleton, of a woman being called Luzia, which was found in Brazil, has prompted speculation of another origins scenario. The skeleton, estimated to be possibly 11,500 years old and thus older than any previous human bones in the Western Hemisphere, appeared to be more Negroid in its cranial features than Mongoloid. (112)

 

 

Mesoamerica

 

North America

 C. Turner looked at many different features of teeth, including shoveling, and variations in the number of roots of premolars and molars. By comparing large samples of teeth on many different measurements, Turner concluded that: (1) New World groups are more like Asians than like Europeans; (2) all New World groups resemble each other more than they do most Old World populations; (3) dental variation is greater in North America than in South America; (4) there are three "clusters" of New World peoples. It is very difficult, however, to estimate rates of change in these kinds of physical features, and thereby to estimate how long ago the migrations to the Americas began, but Turner's calculations estimate a date of about 12,000 years ago for the initial colonization of the New World, with two much later waves of colonizations.(26)

...mtDNA profiling by Douglas Wallace's group of Native Americans living in the Great Lakes region shows the existence of a fifth genetic lineage. This form (X) only exists amongst Europeans and is not present in East Asians. The data suggest that this haplogroup arrived in the Americas either 12 to 17 kya or 23 to 36 kya. (145)

Other

 Fossilized remains available to us so far show Homo sapiens appeared without direct antecedents much less than half a million years ago. Their fossils have been found in Australia as late as 10,000 BC. (113)