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Environment                  in General
Africa
Southwest Asia
Egypt
Indus Valley
China
Europe
South America
Mesoamerica
North America
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The Globe

 

It seems clear that by 300,000 years ago humans lived across much of the Old World, from England to northern China, from South Africa to Indonesia. Some of this area, particularly Africa, had been occupied by humans for more than a million years, and people had probably lived even on the extreme periphery for many hundreds of thousands of years. It seems clear that some form of early Homo left Africa and colonized Europe and Asia between 1.0 and 0.5 million years ago. (16)

Amid the troves of evidence compiled by early geologists and resurrected by Allan and Delair are Asian caves filled with the bones of numerous and diverse species of recent prehistoric animals from around the world that could have been driven to their final resting place only by vast amounts of water, propelled by some spectacular, cataclysmic force of nature. (83)

The Greenland core records 18 huge eruptions that took place from 1,000 to 9,000 years ago, depositing unusually heavy layers of ash. That was when the great ice sheets were melting and, the authors of the Science article suggest, may have been when molten material deep within the earth's volcanic zones welled up in response to the diminishing burden of ice. Those zones included Kamchatka, the Aleutians and Iceland, all upwind of Greenland or relatively near. (89)

We live on a planet in which both catastrophes and uniform change have played their roles. In the purported distinction between all-at-once and slow-and-steady, as in much else, the truth embraces seemingly antithetical extremes. (119)

Sixty-five million years ago most of the species on Earth were snuffed out-probably because of a massive cometary or asteroidal collision. Among those killed off were all the dinosaurs, which had for nearly 200 million years--from before the breakup of Gondwanaland--been the dominant species, the ubiquitous masters of life on Earth. (119)

Ultimately, Croll's cyclical change hypothesis was resurrected by Milutin Milankovitch, a Serbian mathematician. Between 1924 and 1941, Milankovitch reanalyzed Croll's data, supplemented it with new information, then asserted that there were not one but three cycles that affected the earth's climate. The longest cycle, of 100,000 years' duration, derives from changes in the shape of the earth's orbit. A shorter cycle, of 41,000 years, is due to rhythmic changes in the tilt (back-and-forth movement) of the earth's axis and determines the amount of sunlight that reaches the northern latitudes. The third and shortest cycle, of 19,000 to 23,000 years, reflects changes in the precession (wobble or side-to-side movement) of the earth on its axis. This last cycle influences equatorial latitudes and conditions, which in turn affect the lengths of the seasons. Like Croll, Milankovitch posited eight major and complete glacial cycles, but his were each about 100,000 years in duration. (130)

Confirmation of Milankovitch's calculation would not come until the 1970s, when deep-sea cores revealed that there had indeed been systematic changes in the earth's climate that corresponded to Milankovitch's predictions. Changes in the ratios of two oxygen isotopes (O18, which is common in the skeletons of tiny one-celled creatures called "foraminifera" when the oceans are cold, and O16, which is more abundant when the waters are warm) confirmed that all three of Milankovitch's cycles had indeed occurred in the past. These cores also revealed that a cold climate with limited mountain glaciation extended back 2.5 million years ago into the Pliocene (the period before the Pleistocene) but that extensive climatic deterioration accompanied by large continental ice sheets did not occur until just after 1 million years ago. The cores further showed that though the "signature" of the 100,000-, 41,000-, and 19,000-to-23,000-year cycles was readily detectable, only the shorter cycles were directly attributable to orbital changes. In order to have an effect on climate, the long cycle - which has also been documented well into preglacial times - would require an additional stimulus or trigger. In other words, some additional factor or factors would have to be at work to set major, long-term glacial cycles into motion. (130)

There is another objection to be advanced against all theories supposing a general fall of world temperatures during the ice ages. We have seen that ice ages existed in the tropics and that great ice caps covered vast areas on and near the equator. This happened not once but several times. The question is, if the temperature of the whole earth fell enough to permit ice sheets a mile thick to develop on the equator, just where did the fauna and flora go for refuge? How did they survive? How did the reef corals, which require a minimum seawater temperature of 68° F. throughout the year, manage to survive? We know that the reef corals, for example, existed long before the period of the tropical ice sheets. Furthermore we know that the great forests of the Carboniferous Period, which gave us most of our coal, lived both earlier than and contemporarily with the glaciations of Africa and India, though in different places. Obviously this would have been impossible if the temperature of the whole earth had been simultaneously reduced, for the equatorial zone itself would have been uninhabitable, while all other areas were still colder. It is small wonder that W. B. Wright insisted, over a quarter of a century ago, that the Permo-Carboniferous ice sheets in Africa and India were proof of a shift of the poles. (132)

So we are left with a clear-cut conclusion: Climatic zones have always existed, but they have followed different paths on the face of the earth. If changes in the position of the axis of rotation of the earth, and of the earth upon its axis, are equally impossible, and if the theory of continental drift provides no satisfactory solution for reasons already discussed, then we are forced to the conclusion that the surface of the earth must often have been shifted over the underlying layers. Bain has drawn some interesting further conclusions. He states that the earth's crust must have been displaced over the interior layers and that "fixity of the axis of the earth relative to the elastice outer shell just is not valid ..." He points to the fossil evidence of the cold zones (distributed in circular areas) and says, "...The recurrent change in position of these rings through geologic time can be accounted for now only on the basis of change in the position of the elastic shell of the earth relative to its axis of rotation." (132)

For the older geological periods, there are a number of lines of evidence that suggest rapid change. So insistently, indeed, does this theme occur in the strata that Brooks, in his Climate Through the Ages, refers to a 21,000-year cycle of climatic change which he believes operated through the whole Eocene Period, or for about 15,000,000 years. His figure, of course, is only a rough average, and the intervals may have been very unequal in length. And let us also recall the following words of the greatest geologist of the second half of the nineteenth century, Eduard Suess: The earthquakes of today are but faint reminiscences of those telluric movements to which the structure of almost every mountain range bears witness. Numerous examples of great mountain chains suggest by their structure the possibility, and even in some cases the probability, of the occasional intervention in the course of great geological eras of processes of episodal disturbances of such indescribable and overwhelming violence, that the imagination refuses to follow the understanding and to complete the picture of which the outlines are furnished by observations of fact. (132)

The general evidence for displacements of the lithosphere is exceedingly rich. In turn, the assumption of such displacements serves to solve a wide range of problems such as the causes of ice ages, warm polar climates, mountain building; it provides a mechanism that may account for changes in the elevations of land areas and in the topography of the ocean floors; it also provides a basis for the resolution of conflicts in isostatic theory. For the period of the late Pleistocene, the theory permits the construction of a chronology of polar shifts, with three successive tentative po1ar positions in the Yukon, the Greenland Sea, and Hudson Bay preceding the present position of the pole. The evidence for the location of the Hudson Bay region at the pole during the last North American ice age is overwhelming, and this fact in itself provides the principal support for the assumption of the earlier shifts. The tempo of change indicated for the late Pleistocene is reflected in evidence from earlier geological periods. A. Einstein: I find your arguments very impressive and have the impression that your hypothesis is correct. One can hardly doubt that significant shifts of the crust of the earth have taken place repeatedly and within a short time. The empirical material you have compiled would hardly permit another interpretation. (132)

It appears that, in round figures, the poles remain stationary for periods of about 30,000 years, then move around for 6,000 years, then again stay put for 30,000 years, and so on. Scientists have established that the last four rounds of the poles started 120,000 years ago when the North Pole installed itself in the territory of Yukon in Canada at 63° Nand 135° W; then it went to the Greenland Sea at 72° N and 10° E about 84,000 years ago, moved from 54,000 until 48,000 years ago and settled in the middle of Hudson Bay at 60° N and 83° W; it rested there for 30,000 years; then wandered again from about 18,000 to about 12,000 years ago when it came to its present location. Simultaneously the South Pole went through similar gyrations but in the opposite direction. We have to note that its three previous locations were in their turn in the southern part of the Indian Ocean between Australia and the Antarctic itself. Only the last movement 12,000 years ago brought the South Pole to the middle of the great continent of Antarctica.(141)

The dramatic message from the deep-sea cores was that beyond any shadow of reasonable doubt the climate of the last million years has been dominated by periodic variations in the Earth's orbital parameters that have resulted in ice ages occurring roughly every 100 kyr. Since around 400 kya the pattern has been broadly consistent. Each ice age ended rapidly, then after an interglacial that lasted only around 10 kyr, the climate slipped back into glacial conditions, giving the temperature record a characteristic sawtooth appearance. The records in the northern hemisphere obtained from both ocean sediment and ice-core data for the period covering the last glacial provide a more detailed picture. The striking suddenness of many of the changes came as a surprise to many climatologists. Equally impressive were the dramatic fluctuations in temperature on millennial timescales. All these can be seen in the Greenland ice core. (145)

The real surprise was in the limited cooling near the Equator in all oceans. Most of all, the western Pacific temperatures appear to have stayed essentially the same as modern conditions and in some cases were even warmer. Overall, the inference was that the Earth cooled surprisingly little during the ice age, except at high latitudes. This means that until around 10 kya, for all but the tropics, the climate was much more variable than it has been since then. (145)

It is found that the key to explaining how variations in the orbital parameters can trigger ice ages is the amount of solar radiation received at high latitudes during the summer. This is critical to the growth and decay of ice sheets. At 65° N this quantity has varied by more than 9% during the last 800 kyr. Computer modelling studies show that, when fluctuations of this order are combined with realistic assumptions about the time taken for ice sheets to build up, it is possible to reproduce the long-term behaviour of the ice ages with surprising accuracy. (145)

The clear message from all the evidence available on climate change and variability over the last 100 kyr is that the survival of the human race was a precarious business. The ability to interpret the seasonal changes that drove migratory patterns and to plan how to intercept prey was an essential part of survival, especially if combined with a migratory lifestyle of one's own. Until the start of the Holocene around 10 kya, conditions were immeasurably more challenging for humankind. (145)

The fact that the last ice age was not a period of uniform lower temperatures had many implications for humans. The combination of its being much colder than now for much of the time, with the lengthy periods of sustained cooling and warming plus the much greater short-term variability, made life fearfully demanding. If we were to rank the challenges of the ice age, while all substantial changes must have been unwelcome, the sudden coolings probably represented the greatest threat to humans. (145)

The fluctuations in the levels of dust, calcium and sea salt in the Greenland ice cores, together with measurements of annual snowfall, suggest that the variance in the strength of circulation and hence mid-latitude precipitation levels was correspondingly greater before the Holocene. (145)

Although several different mechanisms of an astronomical and geological nature seem to be involved, and although not all of these are fully understood, the fact is that the cycle of precession does correlate very strongly with the onset and demise of ice ages. Briefly, what Hays, Imbrie and others have proved is that the onset of ice ages can be predicted when the following evil and inauspicious conjunctions of celestial cycles occur: (a) maximum eccentricity, which takes the earth millions of miles further away from the sun at 'aphelion' (the extremity of its orbit) than is normal; (b) minimum obliquity, which means that the earth's axis, and consequently the North and South poles, stand much closer to the vertical than is normal; and (c precession of the equinoxes which, as the great cycle continues, eventually causes winter in one hemisphere or the other to set in when the earth is at 'perihelion' (its closest point to the the sun); this in turn means that summer occurs at aphelion and is thus relatively cold, so that ice laid down in winter fails to melt during the following summer and remorseless build-up of glacial conditions occurs. (152)

In 1982, the space telescope IRAS (infrared astronomical station) saw what had not been seen for perhaps two thousand years. On December 30, 1983, the world press reported that the advanced space telescope: "Discovered a celestial body in the direction of the constellation Orion, which possibly is as big as the gigantic Jupiter and perhaps so close to the earth that it could beglong to our solar system.... When IRAS researcheers saw the mysterious celestial body and calculated that it was possibly eighty billion kilometers away from earth, they speculated that it is moving towards earth." In 1987, NASA confirmed what the ancient Sumerians knew: "an eccentric tenth planet orbits the Sun." (164)

Africa

The key to Africa's conduciveness to human development and habitation is in its size and diversity. The continent is enormous. When one strips away the vast deserts, the icy mountain peaks, the mosquito-infested tropics and all the other places where humans cannot live, one is still left with a continent that has around one-third of the habitable landmass on the planet. Additionally, Africa has more of its surface straddling the equator than any other continent. The combination of size and equatorial exposure results in an enormous diversity of habitats, so that within Africa there exists almost every biozone on Earth. The size and diversity of Africa create conditions conducive to evolutionary change; add to this that there is more habitable landmass on this continent than on any other, and it is not surprising that an explosion of primate species in Africa ultimately led to the evolution of humankind. The great Miocene rain forests that blanketed the continent virtually from coast to coast over a 15-million-year period provided ample food and protection for primates, the perfect developmental hothouse. Even when these forests began retreating in the face of the great aridification accompanying the beginning of the Pliocene some five million years ago, Africa remained more habitable than the Northern Hemisphere continents, which froze under the grip of an ice age. (142)

Bob Brain published his findings in a monumental book titled The Hunters or the Hunted? and conclusively demonstrated that it was not the ape-men that had accumulated the bones of the South African caves but carnivores and scavengers, particularly hyenas, saber-toothed cats, leopards, and porcupines. He found that the damaged bones of a young ape-man child were not caused by the bludgeoning of cannibals, as Dart had suggested, but were the result of hyena gnawing. Leopards were particularly important to Brain, who demonstrated that they were the most probable collecting agents of the ape-men at Swartkrans. The bird-of-prey hypothesis was not just a good detective story. It told us something more about the life of the australopithecines, poignantly revealing just how vulnerable these medium-size creatures were in their environment - preyed on not only by saber­toothed cats, hyenas, leopards, and the common carnivores, but even by ancient eagles. They were not the dominant animals in their environment, a far cry from what the later Homo species were like. Bob Brain was right. We were the hunted, not the hunters. (142)

Chimps and gorillas are adaptations of a large-bodied ape to tropical evergreen forests, while hominids are adaptations to everything else except evergreen forests. That still holds true today. You see humans scattered across Africa in nearly every habitable area except evergreen tropical forests, where it takes hyper-specialization to survive in that particular environment. If you're a human, either you have to have the pygmy-type adaptations - low population numbers and small body sizes - or you have to clear-cut the evergreen forests in order to survive. That's the fundamental difference between chimps - and their evolution over the past five to seven million years - and hominids and theirs. (142)

Across Africa the analysis must take on a global tone. While North Africa and Arabia were influenced by patterns that controlled events in the Mediterranean and the Middle East, farther south two other factors came into play. The first was that for much of the ice age the strength of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) was reduced because temperatures in the tropics were lower. This meant that rainfall in equatorial regions was reduced and the band of heavy rainfall associated with the ITCZ was restricted to a narrower band close to the Equator. The extent of tropical rain forests was much reduced and savannah was more extensive in equatorial regions. Second, southern Africa was influenced by weather patterns over the southern oceans, rather than events in the northern hemisphere. So to the extent that the southern hemisphere conditions followed a different course from those in the north, climate change in southern Africa was different. (145)

Southwest Asia

 Many texts from antiquity, including the Hebrew Bible, describe or refer to the unique forest of tall and great cedar trees in Lebanon. In ancient times it extended for miles, surrounding the unique place--a vast stone platform built by the gods as their first space-reLated site on Earth, before their centers and real spaceport were established. It was, Sumerian texts attested, the only structure that had survived the Deluge, and could thus serve right after the Deluge as a base of operations for the Anunnaki; from it they revived the ravished lands with crops and domesticated animals. The place, 'called the "Landing Place" in the Epic' of Gilgamesh, was that king's destination in his search for immortality; we learn from the epic tale that it was there, in the sacred cedar forest, that Enlil kept the GUD.ANNA-the "Bull of Heaven," the symbol of Enlil's Age of the Bull. (137)

There were...sound reasons for locating the land of Eden in the highlands above the 'fertile crescent' of ancient Sumer. Some bible commentators have long considered that, since two out of four of the rivers of paradise rise in the mountains of Turkish Kurdistan, the other two must also be major rivers that have their headwaters in this same region. They have therefore seen fit to link these - the Pishon and Gihon - with the Greater Zab and Araxes, both of which do rise in northern Kurdistan. (149)

Eastern Kurdistan, showing the traditional locations associated with both the Garden of Eden and the Ark of Noah. (149)

The lakes Van and Urmia, near to Mount Ararat, are respectively 1,670 metres and 1,250 metres above sea level, and almost unbelievably, they are both salt lakes. Even stranger, there are still sea-sand 'beaches' much higher, 2,150 metres in the mountains above the south of Lake Van. In the lowlying lands to the east of Mount Ararat lies the Caspian Sea - the largest landlocked body of water on the planet. We looked up the facts about this giant lake and were hardly surprised when we found that it is also a salt-water lake, containing salmon, sturgeon and herring as well as other marine animals such as porpoises and seals. ... the Aral Sea, another lake some 480 kilometres further east in Kazakstan and Uzbekistan, is also a salt-water lake. (160)

When the first atomic bomb exploded in New Mexico, the desert sand turned to fused green glass. This fact, according to the magazine Free World, has given certain archaeologists a turn. They have been digging in the ancient Euphrates Valley and have uncovered a layer of agrarian culture 8000 years old, and a layer of herdsman culture much older, and a still older caveman culture. Recently, they reached another layer. .. of fused green glass. In the southwest Egyptian desert, near the borders of Libya, Chad, and Sudan, there is a vast sea of such fused green glass known simply as "The Libyan Desert Glass." (164)

 

 

Egypt

 The Nile, even if low, was still a dependable source of water for irrigation, and in any case Egypt was a well-organized state and thus prepared for better or worse years by the storage of grain in government warehouses. The Nile delta, in particular, presented a far more inviting landscape in antiquity than is evident today. Today, because of silting and geological change, the Nile splits into only two main branches just north of Cairo. But a wide variety of ancient sources, including two maps from the Roman-Byzantine period, report that the Nile once split into as many as seven branches and created a vastly larger area of well-watered land. The easternmost branch extended into what is now the marshy, salty, arid zone of northwestern Sinai. And man­made canals flowing from it carried freshwater to the entire area, making what are now the arid, salty swamps of the Suez Canal area into green, fertile, densely inhabited land. Both the eastern branch of the Nile and the man-made canals have been identified in recent years in geological and topographical studies in the delta and the desert to its east. (143)

Indus Valley

 Records gathered in 1947 by the Swedish survey ship Albatross reveal a vast plateau of hardened lava for at least several hundred miles southeast of Sri Lanka . The lava, evidence of a severe rupture in the earth's crust, fills most of the now submerged valleys that once existed there. The immense eruption that gave off the lava may have coincided with the downfall of Wallace's Southern Continent (aka Kumari Kandam) for which much zoological and botanical evidence exists that would give such a landmass a recent date, according to Allan and Delair. (83)

In light of Allan and Delair's work, other geographic anomalies, such as India's Deccan trap, a vast triangular plain of lava several thousand feet thick covering 250,000 square miles, and the Indo-Gangetic trough, a gigantic crack in the earth's surface stretching from Sumatra through India to the Persian Gulf, can be interpreted as evidence of a fantastic cataclysm that sank Kumari Kandam at the time of the great extinction. (83

The Equilibrium Line Altitude of glaciation in the Himalayas at the LGM was about three-quarters of a kilometre or more lower than it is today. The ice-cap at the LGM was much more extensive than it is today - although there is no agreement over exactly how much more extensive. There have been catastrophic outburst floods from the Karakorams and the Himalayas in the past, floods that reshaped landscapes, floods that carried icebergs full of huge impacted rocks all the way down to the Potwar plateau. Such outbursts continue to occur and even in the much reduced conditions of today's glacial cover they can produce floodwaves 30 metres high capable of smashing whole villages to smithereens and destroying armies. The region is uniquely plagued by the particularly dangerous and rare phenomenon of its main river valleys being dammed by gigantic landslides or by the encroachment of glaciers - a sure recipe for catastrophic outburst flooding. (124)

China

 

Europe

 Modern calculations have been made to see what would happen to the Mediterranean if the Strait of Gibraltar were dammed up. All of the rivers that bring fresh water to the Mediterranean could not equal the volume of water evaporated by the heat of the Sun. The sea level would descend rather rapidly, reducing the evaporation area and finally settling at a point of equilibrium where the water flowing in from the rivers would equal the amount evaporating. This new level would be about 600 ft. below the present level. The past would return. The islands of the Aegean Sea would be much larger and all thirteen points of the Maltese cross would be visible. (141)

South America

The Andes rise so sharply from the Pacific that only a thin strip of land, less than about six kilometers at its widest point, separates the mountains from the sea. And because the Andes shield the coast from the rain-bearing air currents crossing the continent from the Atlantic , most of this coastal strip is one of the world's driest deserts, a region where rain falls only once or twice every five years. Human life along the coast is tied directly to these rivers and streams because they provide the only drinking water. (52)

Occasionally, shifts in wind and water change the water temperatures and the plants die, cutting off the base of the food chin. When this happens, rotting plant and animal life fill the air with clouds of hydrogen sulfide that can blacken ships and houses. Several years may pass before the fertility of the sea is restored. The frequency in re history of el Nino (a reference to the Christ child), as is disturbance is called, is unknown, but it has occurred somewhat regularly in historical times, and recently it has been recurring about once every two to seven years and usually lasts about a year. By late 1995 this area had been experiencing el Nino continuously for nearly four years, which seems exceptionally long. Assuming approximately the same conditions in ancient times, el Nino may have been a limiting factor on human population densities in coastal Andean South America. (52)

Situated at an altitude of 12,500 feet and measuring 120 miles long and 40 miles wide, Lake Titicaca is the highest navigable lake in the world. Strangely, the lake's shoreline is strewn with millions of fossilized seashells. You would not expect to find ancient examples of marine life stranded at such an elevation, but geologists theorize that Titicaca was thrust up from the sea during a period of uplift that created the South American continent about 100 million years ago. It is hard to imagine the mighty force that pushed the lake from sea level to more than 2 miles above the coast, into the rarified Andean air, but the evidence is unmistakable. (69)

Titicaca and Poopo, lake and salt-bed of Coipasa, salt beds of Uyuni - several of these lakes and salt-beds have chemical compositions similar to those of the ocean. ...Lake Titicaca is...full of characteristic [saltwater] molluscs, such as Paludestrina and Ancylus, which shows that it is, geologically speaking, of relatively modern origin. The region in which the feeders of Lake Titicaca rise consist almost exclusively of old crystalline, and younger volcanic rocks; Triassic formations, from which salt is usually derived through extraction, are markedly absent. Hence the presence of so much salt in the Bolivian Tableland can only be accounted for by postulating a former connection of the great lacustrine basin with the Ocean, and by assuming the eventual evaporation of this body of water when the connection with the Ocean was at last severed. (132)

Although the ruins are now over thirteen miles from Lake Titicaca there are reasons to think that in the days when the city was occupied it stood on the shores of the Lake itself or on an arm, or bay, for traces of what was apparently a dock or mole are to be seen just north of the principal ruins. If so the lake has receded...(132)

The phenomenon of this slanting strand-line is generally thought to be due to an "imbalanced rise" of South America out of the waters of the ocean. These forces, it has been argued, lifted the continent to a greater height in the north than in the south, thus explaining why the level of the former Inter-Andean Sea is not parallel with that of either Lake Titicaca or the present ocean. On the basis of paleontological and hydrological evidence, Bellamy believed that in geologically recent time the whole Cordillera was violently upheaved, and the Inter-Andean Sea thereby caused to vanish, the remnants of which have, over long periods of time, shrunk to their present vestigial condition. Remarkable confirmation of the immensity of this uplift is represented by the ancient agricultural stone terraces surrounding the Titicaca basin. These structures, belonging to some bygone civilization, occur at altitudes far too high to support the growth of crops for which they were originally built. Some rise to 15,000 feet above sea level, or about 2,500 feet above the ruins of Tiahuanaco, and on Mt. Illimani they occur up to 18,400 feet above sea level; that is, above the line of eternal snow. (132)

Mesoamerica

They had located a "lost city" at a depth of 2,100 feet off the coast of Cuba and less than 50 miles east of the Yucatan Peninsula. Using side-scan sonar equipment, the team noticed a large underwater plateau with "clear images of symmetrically organized stone structures that looked like an urban development partly covered by sand. From above, the shapes resembled pyramids, roads, and buildings," one of the researchers reported. The researchers then sent in an underwater robot probe-a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV)-to film parts of the 7.7-square-mile plateau. The resulting images confirmed the presence of monolithic blocks of cut stone sized from 6.5 to 16 feet in length and positioned in perpendicular and circular formations. Some of the blocks were stacked and some were exposed to the sea. Who built this ancient city? The team declined to speculate, but I they did say they thought that it must have been built when the current sea floor was above the surface--a logical assumption-which would have been at least 6,000 years ago. That would make it the oldest such site in the world, predating the cities of ancient Egypt by 2,500 years, those of the Olmec civilization by 3,500 years, and those of the Maya by almost 4,500 years. By virtue of their proximity to the Yucatan Peninsula, the ruins are in the same general region as those of the Mayan civilization. In fact, it's apparent that if the sea level were lower, Cuba, the Yucatan, and the ancient city would be part of the same landmass. (68)

North America

 

Drawing on the work of Charles Hapgood, who developed the theory with Einstein's assistance, the Flem-Aths explain that this may be the reason carcasses of hundreds of woolly mammoths, rhinos, and other ancient mammals were found flash-frozen in a "zone of death" across Siberia and north Canada . Remarkably, the stomachs of these mammals contained warm weather plants, the implication being that the very ground upon which the mammals grazed suddenly shifted from a temperate to an arctic climate. Hapgood and Einstein theorized that a sudden shifting and freezing of the continent of Antarctica, which may have been situated two thousand miles farther north than it is now, could have occurred as a result of crustal displacement. (55)

Other

 Ancient maps accurately depicting Antarctica before it was covered in ice also support the idea that the continent was situated in a temperate climate in recent prehistory. Copied from source maps of unknown antiquity the Piri Ri'is, Oronteus Finaeus, and Mercator maps derive, Graham Hancock and the Flem-Aths propose, from some prehistoric society with the capacity to calculate accurately longitude and chart coastlines, an accomplishment that did not take place in recorded history until the eighteenth century. (55)

Japan has no flood myth. Indeed, all in all it seems that we must regard Japan as having been a blessed land - as its mythology claims - throughout the rigours of the end of the Ice Age. For not only was it sheltered by its own topography from the worst effects of the post-glacial floods, but also it was screened from the most violent extremes of continental climate, thus enabling it to develop the lush and plentiful natural environment in which the Jomon could continue to pursue, across fourteen millennia, their near-idyllic lifestyle as affluent hunter-gatherers, fishermen, horticulturalists and, latterly, farmers. For what Japan actually lost during the post-glacial floods of the Jomon era were its 'beachfront properties' - including, I will endeavour to prove, several great coastal temples and sacred sites that now lie as much as 30 metres underwater. But it never lost its heart and soul to the rising seas nor was it ever smashed down to total destruction in the way that other areas of the world were. (124)

So far as we know at present, the very first evidence of an ice age in Antarctica comes from the Eocene Epoch. This was barely 60,000,000 years ago. Before that, for some billion and a half years, there is no suggestion of polar conditions, though very many earlier ice ages existed in other parts of the earth. It is, then, little wonder that Priestly, in his account of his expedition to Antarctica, should have concluded: "...There can be no doubt from what this expedition and other expeditions have found that several times at least during past ages the Antarctic has possessed a climate much more genial than that of England at the present day..." Further evidence is provided by the discovery by British geologists of great fossil forests in Antarctica, of the same type that grew on the Pacific coast of the United States 20,000,000 years ago. (132)

...the EPICA ice core provides an unbroken record for more than 730 kyr. This shows a remarkable parallelism with ocean-sediment observations around the world, and confirms that, for at least this period, conditions in Antarctica have been unremittingly icy. (145)

In the vast Erye Basin lies Australia's largest lake which we found is another, shallow inland sea of salt water, whose shores are 150 metres below sea level. For much of the time, the lake is little more than a muddy waste covered with a 38 cm-thick layyer of salt, and only on rare occasions does it fill completely to its maximum depth of 4 metres. (160)